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Chemical Abstracts nameN-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-3-pyridinecarboxamide
Other namesDFF CAS RN[83164-33-4]
Mol. wt.394.3 M.f.C19H11F5N2O2 FormColourless crystals. M.p.159-161 °C V.p.4.25´ 10-3 mPa (25 °C, gas saturation method) KOW logP = 4.9 Henry0.033 Pa m3 mol-1 SolubilityIn water <0.05 mg/l (25 ºC). Soluble in most organic solvents, e.g. acetone, dimethylformamide 100, acetophenone, cyclohexanone 50, isophorone 35, xylene 20, cyclohexane, 2-ethoxyethanol, kerosene <10 (all in g/kg, 20 ºC). StabilityStable in air up to melting point. At 22 ºC, very stable in aqueous solution at pH 5, 7 and 9. Fairly stable to photolysis.
ReviewsProc. Br. Crop Prot. Conf. - Weeds, 1985, 1, 23-28. OralAcute oral LD50 for rats >2000, mice >1000, rabbits >5000 mg/kg. Skin and eyeAcute percutaneous LD50 for rats >2000 mg/kg. Non-irritating to skin and eyes (rabbits). InhalationLC50 (4 h) for rats >2.34 mg/l air. NOELIn 14 d sub-acute trials in rats, no adverse effect observed at 1600 mg/kg b.w. In 90 d feeding trials, NOEL for dogs was 1000 mg/kg b.w. daily, for rats 500 ppm diet. OtherNon-mutagenic in the Ames test. Toxicity classWHO (a.i.) U EC classificationR52, R53
BirdsAcute oral LD50 for quail >2150, mallard ducks >4000 mg/kg. FishLC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout 56-100, carp 105 mg/l. DaphniaLC50 (48 h) - no effect at 10 mg/l. AlgaeNo growth inhibition of algae (96 h) at 10 mg/l. BeesNon-toxic by ingestion or contact. WormsNon-toxic to earthworms.
PlantsIn cereals, rapidly metabolised via the nicotinamide and nicotinic acid to CO2. Following pre-emergence application in autumn, no residues are detectable in the grain and straw after c. 200-250 days. Soil/EnvironmentIn soil, degradation proceeds via the metabolites2-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)nicotinamide and 2-(3-trifluoromethylphenoxy)nicotinic acid to bound residues and CO2. Half-life varies from 15 to 30 weeks, depending on soil type and water content.
BiochemistryBlocks carotenoid biosynthesis, by inhibition of phytoene desaturase. Mode of actionSelective contact and residual herbicide, absorbed principally by the shoots of germinating seedlings, with limited translocation. UsesApplied at 125-250 g/ha pre- or early post-emergence in autumn-sown wheat and barley, to control grass and broad-leaved weeds, particularly Galium, Veronica and Viola spp. Normally used in combination with isoproturon or other cereal herbicides. PhytotoxicityAny slight phytotoxicity is in the form of small transient patches on basal leaves, with no adverse effect on crop development.
Formulation types 500 g/l SC
Packaging 25kg/drum(TC); Many kinds of packaging
Apperance Off-Wither to Wither Powder(TC); Off Wither Suspension Liquid(SC)..